The word Dosha is derived from Sanskrit root word Dusha which means contamination. Vata, Pitta and Kapha are the three doshas which are the governing principles of physiology and psychology.
Vata is derived from the verb root ‘Va’ meaning to move or transport or impel.
Enthusiasm, respiration, movement, transportation of nutrients, proper elimination of urine, feaces, sweat, menstrual blood and fetus are the normal functions of vata.
Pain, stiffness, heaviness in the body, loss of sleep, roughness of skin, emaciation, instability of mind, irregularity of digestion, muscle wasting, tremors, blackish discoloration, weakness of sensory and motor functions, loss of consciousness, giddiness, constipation are the symptoms of impairment of functions of vata.
Vata gets aggravated by intake of bitter, astringent, dry and pungent foods, fasting, suppression of natural urges, excessive cold, worry and night awakening.
Prana, Udana, Vyana, Samana and Apana are the five types of vata and they regulate the specified functions in the body.
Prana regulates the respiration, will power, functions of heart, sense organs, intellect and performing functions such as expectoration, sneezing, belching and swallowing of food.
Udana functions are initiation of speech, enthusiasm, effort, energy, strength, color, complexion, memory.
Vyana regulates the muscle functions such as flexion, extension, opening and closing of eyelids
Samana, which receives the food into the GI tract, helps in digestion of food, separation of essential part and waste part, and excrete the waste in their respective path.
Apana evicts the semen, menstrual blood, feaces, urine and the products of conception.
Pitta Dosha :
Pitta is derived from the verb root ‘tapa’ meaning to heat.
Pitta is involved with various physiological functions related to agni (heat) like digestion, metabolic and enzymatic activities such as digestion of food, body heat, thirst, hunger, vision, lustre, cheerfulness, intellect, strength, retention of memory, softness of body and also regulate the hormones.
Yellowish discoloration of urine, faeces, eyes, skin, burning sensation, reduced sleep, excessive perspiration, weakness of digestion, loss of lustre, feeling of cold and burning sensation are the symptoms of impairment of pitta function.
Pitta gets aggravated by intake of pungent, sour, hot, salt and irritant substances, anger, excessive fasting, exposure to hot sun.
Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alochaka and Bhrajaka are the five types of pitta, they regulate the specific functions in the body.
Pachaka pitta digests the ingested food and separates the essence and waste, it grace and influence the other types of pitta
Ranjaka imparts colour to the ahara rasa (the end portion of digestion which gets absorbed and circulates in the body) and converts into blood.
Sadhaka helps to achieve the goal through intellect, discriminating power and self esteem.
Alochaka which is responsible for sight and thinking processes.
Bhrajaka which gives natural lustre to skin.
Kapha represents the water element of the human body and translates as mucus or phlegm.
Body and mind stability, strength, enthusiasm, moistness, oiliness, smoothness, lubricates and connects joints and bones, promotes wound healing, increases libido, good sleep, memory are the normal functions of kapha in the body.
Diminution of digestive fire, excess salivation, nausea, cold, excessive sleep, lack of enthusiasm, pallor, cough, giddiness, palpitation, laxity of joints, abnormal growth, depression are the symptoms of imparied functions of kapha dosha.
Kapha gets aggravated by intake of excess sweet, sour, salty, unctuous, heavy substances, lack of exercise and day sleep.
Avalambaka, Kledaka, Tarpaka, Bodhaka and Sleshaka are the five types of kapha, they regulate the specific functions in the body.
Avalambaka supports and protects the vitality of heart and lungs with the help of food essence.
Kledaka moistens and produces the unctuous food which enters the stomach.
Tarpaka gives nourishment and promotes the proper functioning of sensory organs.
Bodhaka helps to perceive the taste by tongue.
Sleshaka lubricates the joints and protects from bone friction and helps for easy movement of joints.